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Turkey’s economic and social development performance since 2000 has been impressive, leading to increased employment and incomes and making Turkey an upper-middle-income country. However, growing economic vulnerabilities and a more challenging external environment are threatening to undermine those achievements. 

During this time, Turkey urbanized dramatically, maintained strong macroeconomic and fiscal policy frameworks, opened to foreign trade and finance, harmonized many laws and regulations with European Union (EU) standards, and greatly expanded access to public services. It also recovered well from the global crisis of 2008/09. 

For most of the period since 2000, The country has made significant progress in increasing access to education. Pre-primary education and higher-education enrollment rates are increasing rapidly. The gender-based enrollment gap has nearly disappeared at the primary level and narrowed at the secondary level. Income inequality is very substantial, but poverty rates are falling. Health care quality is steadily improving, with near-universal health-insurance coverage having been achieved by 2014, but cost pressures are growing. The employment rate among women is very low. The government’s conservative family-affairs stance has provoked ongoing debate on gender equality. The rising incidence of homicides against women is a serious concern. 

Finally, environmental sustainability, energy security, sustainable urban development and progress toward a high-tech, science-based society are not assured in Turkey. Increased government spending (e.g., on research and development, education and vocational training, social policy, and health care) marked a step forward, but so far fails to show sustainable results.

  • Too many cultural differences between regions.
  • Turkish society is not open-minded to changes.
  • The unsustainability of charity culture.
  • No enough technology and investments in renewable energy systems.
  • No clear law in this field. 
  • The existing political system and its directions.
  • Impact of the economic situation in the whole country.


The SOLID Platform is a project leaded by EL SPACE Social Innovation Hub and Co-Financed by the EUErasumsPlusProgramme. This Project will gather change-makers from Tunisia, Egypt, Romania, Jordan, Turkey, Austria, and Macedonia and will be the beginning of a fruitful collaboration to drive change towards an effective and inclusive global community of social innovators.
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